From the Encyclopedia Judaica 13:82
Paradise and Hell, the place of reward for the righteous and punishment for the wicked after death, are traditionally referred to as the Garden and Gehinnom respectively. In the Bible these two names never refer to the abode of souls after death; nevertheless, the idea of a fiery torment for the wicked may have been by Isaiah 66:24. The earliest possible allusion to Gehinnom in the new sense as found in the Apocrypha in which the general phrase “assured valley” is used to describe the place where the wicked will be judged and punished (I En. 27:1ff.)
The name Gehenna (Gehinnom) first appears in the New Testament (Matt. 5:22-29ff) as does “Paradise”. the abode of the blessed (e.g. Luke 23:43). The word pardis (“park” “orchard”) occurs in biblical the Talmudic sources, but rarely if ever in the sense of “heavenly abode”. The oldest Jewish source to mention Garden of Gehinnom is probably a statement of Johanan b. Zakka at the end of the first century C.E.. “There are two ways before me, one leading to Paradise and the other to Gehinnom” (Ber. 28b).
Jewish teaching about a future life was never systematized, and the varied statement in rabbinic literature cannot be combined into a consistent whole. “days of the Messiah” and “World to come” are sometimes sharply distinguished, sometimes virtually identified. Some passages indicate that righteous and wicked will enter Eden and Gehinniom only after the resurrection and last judgement; in others, the departed take their assigned places immediately after death other descriptions of future bliss and punishment make no mention of locale.
- “Heaven” (name for God)From the Encyclopaedia Judaica 7:682 The Earliest occurrences (except for Dan. 4:23 : “It is Heaven that rules”) of the substitution of the word “Heaven” (God’s abode) for “God” (Himself) are found in the Apocrypha : “In the site of Heaven” (I Macc. 3:18), “Let us cry to Heaven” ( I Macc. 4:10) “They were […]
- Paradise And Hell in Later ThoughtFrom the Encyclopedia Judaica 13:82 Paradise and Hell, the place of reward for the righteous and punishment for the wicked after death, are traditionally referred to as the Garden and Gehinnom respectively. In the Bible these two names never refer to the abode of souls after death; nevertheless, the idea of a fiery torment for […]
- Abraham’s BosomFrom the Encyclopaedia Judaica 2:165 Designation in the New Testament (Luke 16:22-31) of the abode of the blessed souls of pious and poor in the other world (compare IV Macc. 13:17 ; Matt. 8:11, where all three patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are enumerated as those in whose company the pious souls stay). The Hebrew […]
- NetherworldFrom the Encyclopedia Judaica 12:996 Apart from the Isaiah 14:14-19 and Ezekiel 38:18 ff passages, the numerous biblical references to the netherworld are vague and inspired by Ancient Near Easter folklore. Several names are given to the abode of the dead, most common being Sheol always femmine and without the definite article - a sign […]
- GehinnomFrom the Encyclopedia Judaica (Valley of Ben-Hinnom, Valley of [the Son(s) of Hinnom, Gehenna) a valley south of Jerusalem on one of the borders between the territories of Judah and Benjamin, between the Valley of Rephaim and En-Rogel (Josh. 15:8, 18:16). It is identified with Wadier-Rababi. During the time of Monarchy, Gehinnom, at a place […]