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1st Maccabees Chapter 10

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Alexander Balas competes for Jonathan’s support and appoints him high priest


10:1 In the hundred and sixtieth year Alexander, the son of Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, went up and took Ptolemais: for the people had received him, by means of what he reigned there,
10:2 Now when king Demetrius heard of it, he gathered together an exceedingly large army, and went out against him to fight.
10:3 Then Demetrius sent letters to Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
with caring words, so as he magnified him.
10:4 He said , Let us first make peaceשָׁלוֹם
Transliteration šālôm Pronunciation shaw-lome’ shalom – completeness, soundness, welfare, peace, be well, prosperity For more info click here
with him, before he joins with Alexander against us:
10:5 Or else he will remember all the evils that we have done against him, and against his brothers and his people.
10:6 For that reason he gave him authority to gather together an army, and to provide weapons, that he might aid him in battle: he commanded also that the hostages that were in the tower should be delivered him.
10:7 Then
Jonathan came to Jerusalem, and read the letters in the audience of all the people, and of them that were in the tower:
10:8 Who were very afraid, when they heard that the king had given him authority to gather together an army.
10:9 On which those of the tower delivered their hostages to Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
, and he delivered them to their parents.
10:10 This done, Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
settled in Jerusalem, and began to build and restore the city.
10:11 And he commanded the workmen to build the walls and the mount Zion and about with square stones for fortification; and they did so.
10:12 Then the strangers, that were in the fortresses which Bacchides had built, escaped;
10:13 As far as each man left his place, and went to his own country.
10:14 Only at Bethsura some of those that had deserted the Torahתּוֹרָה‎
Tōrā,/ˈtɔːrə, ˈtoʊrə/; “Instruction”, “Teaching” or “Law”) The first five books of the Bible or also called “the books of Moses” comes from an archery term meaning to shoot.
and it’s commandments remained there: for it was their place of refuge.
10:15 Now when king Alexander had heard what promises Demetrius had sent to Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
: and when he was told of the battles and honorable acts which he and his brothers had done, and of the pains that they had endured,
10:16 He said, Where will we find another man like him? Now for that reason we will make him our friend and confederate.
10:17 On this he wrote a letter, and sent it to him, consisting of these words, saying,
10:18 King Alexander sends greetings to his brother Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
:
10:19 We have heard of you, that you are a man of great power, and deserves to be our friend.
10:20 For that reason on this very day we ordain you to be the high priest of your nation, and to be called the king’s friend; (and besides that he sent him a purple robe and a crown of gold:) and insist you take our side, and keep friendship with us.
10:21 So in the seventh month of the hundred sixtieth year, at the feast of booths, Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
put on the holy robe, and gathered together forces, and provided abundant armor.

A letter from Demetrius I to Jonathan


10:22 When Demetrius heard, he was very sorry, and said,
10:23 What have we done, that Alexander has prevented us in making friendship with the Jews to strengthen himself?
10:24 I also will write to them words of encouragement, and promise them dignities and gifts, that I may have their aid.
10:25 For that reason he sent to them to this result: King Demetrius sends greetings to the people of the Jews:
10:26 Because y’all have kept covenants with us, and continued in our friendship, not joining yourselves with our enemies, we have heard of this, and are glad.
10:27 For that reason now y’all continue to still be faithful to us, and we will well pay you for the things y’all do in our behalf,
10:28 And will grant you many exemptions, and give you rewards.
10:29 And now do I free you, and for your sake I release all the Jews, from tributes, and from the customs of salt, and from crown taxes,
10:30 And from that which belongs to me to receive for the third part or the seed, and the half of the fruit of the trees, I release it from this day forward, so that they shall not be taken of the land of Judea, or of the three governments which are added to that out of the country of Samaria and Galilee, from this day forward forever.
10:31 Let Jerusalem also be holy and free, with the borders of it, both from tenths and tributes.
10:32 And as for the tower which is at Jerusalem, I give up authority over it, and give the high priest, that he may station in it such men as he shall choose to keep it.
10:33 Then I freely set free every one of the Jews, that were carried captives out of the land of Judea to any part of my kingdom, and I will that all my officers cancel the tributes even of their cattle.
10:34 in addition to that I will that all the feasts, and Sabbaths, and new moons, and solemn days, and the three days before the feast, and the three days after the feast shall be all of immunity and freedom for all the Jews in my realm.
10:35 Also no man shall have authority to meddle with or to molest any of them in any matter.
10:36 I will besides, that there be enrolled among the king’s forces about thirty thousand men of the Jews, to whom pay shall be given, as belongs to all king’s forces.
10:37 And of them some shall be placed in the king’s fortresses, of whom also some shall be set over the affairs of the kingdom, which are of trust: and I will that their overseers and governors be of themselves, and that they live after their own laws, even as the king has commanded in the land of Judea.
10:38 And concerning the three governments that are added to Judea from the country of Samaria, let them be joined with Judea, that they may be reckoned to be under one, or bound to obey other authority than the high priest’s.
10:39 As for Ptolemais, and the land pertaining to it, I give it as a free gift to the sanctuary at Jerusalem for the necessary expanses of the sanctuary.
10:40 The I give every year fifteen thousand shekelsשקל plural שקלים
Shekel or sheqel sheqalim or shekels, is an ancient Mesopotamian coin, usually of silver. A shekel was first a unit of weight—very roughly 11 grams (0.35 ozt)—and became currency in ancient Tyre and ancient Carthage and then in ancient Israel under the Maccabees.
of silver out of the king’s accounts from the places pertaining.
10:41 And all the surplus, which the officers payed not in as in past, from this point on shall be given toward the works of the temple.
10:42 And beside this, the five thousand shekelsשקל plural שקלים
Shekel or sheqel sheqalim or shekels, is an ancient Mesopotamian coin, usually of silver. A shekel was first a unit of weight—very roughly 11 grams (0.35 ozt)—and became currency in ancient Tyre and ancient Carthage and then in ancient Israel under the Maccabees.
of silver, which they took from the uses of the temple out of the accounts year by year, even those things shall be released, because they belong to the priests that minister.
10:43 And whoever they that escape to the temple at Jerusalem, or be within the precinct of this, being indebted to the king, or for any other matter, let them be free, and take all that they have in my realm.
10:44 For the building also and repairing of the works of the sanctuary expanses shall be given of the king’s accounts.
10:45 Yes, and for the building of the walls of Jerusalem, and the fortifying around it, expenses shall be given out of the king’s accounts, as also for the building of the walls in Judea.

Jonathan rejects the offers of Demetrius – death of Demetrius


10:46 Now when Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
and the people heard these words, they gave no credit to them, or confirmed them, because they remembered the great evil that he had done in Israel; for he had oppressed them ruthlessly.
10:47 But with Alexander they were well pleased, because he was the first that requested of true peaceשָׁלוֹם
Transliteration šālôm Pronunciation shaw-lome’ shalom – completeness, soundness, welfare, peace, be well, prosperity For more info click here
with them, and they were always his supporters.
10:48 Then
king Alexander gathered  great forces, and advanced against Demetrius.
10:49 And after the two kings had joined battle, Demetrius’ army fled: but Alexander followed after him, and prevailed against them.
10:50 And he continued the battle until the sun went down: and that day
Demetrius was  killed.

Alexander’s marriage to Cleopatra. Jonathan as commander-in-chief and governor-general


10:51 Afterward Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemee king of Egypt with a message to this effect:
10:52 Because as I have come again to my realm, and have set in the throne of my ancestors, and have gotten the dominion, and overthrown Demetrius, and recovered our country;
10:53 For after I had joined battle with him, both he and his army was embarrassed by us, so that we sit in the throne of his kingdom:
10:54 Now for that reason let us make a brotherhood of friendship together, and give me now your daughter to wife: and I will be your son in law, and will give both you and her as according to your majesty.
10:55 Then Ptolemee the king gave answer, saying, Happy is the day how you did return to the land of your fathers, and sat on the throne of their kingdom.
10:56 And now I will do to you, as you have written: meet me for that reason at Ptolemais, that we may see one another; for I will marry my daughter to you according to your appeal.
10:57 So Ptolemee went out of Egypt with his daughter Cleopatra, and they came to Ptolemais in the hundred sixty second year:
10:58 Where king Alexander meeting him, he gave to him his daughter Cleopatra, and celebrated her marriage at Ptolemais with great glory, as the manner of kings is.
10:59 Now king Alexander had written to Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
, that he should come and meet him.
10:60 Who consequently went honorably to Ptolemais, where he met the two kings, and gave them and their friends silver and gold, and many presents, and found favor in their sight.
10:61 At that time some irritating fellows of Israel, men of a wicked life, assembled themselves against him, to accuse him: but the king would not hear them.
10:62 Even more than that, the king commanded to him take off his garments, and clothe him in purple: and they did so.
10:63 And he made him sit by himself, and said to his princes, Go with him to the middle of the city, and make proclamation, that no man complain against him of any matter, and that no man trouble him for any manner of reason.
10:64 Now when his accusers saw that he was honored according to the proclamation, and clothed in purple, they ran all away.
10:65 So the king honored him, and wrote him among his chief friends, and made him a duke, and partner of his dominion.
10:66 Afterward Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
returned to Jerusalem with peaceשָׁלוֹם
Transliteration šālôm Pronunciation shaw-lome’ shalom – completeness, soundness, welfare, peace, be well, prosperity For more info click here
and gladness.

Demetrius II. Apollonius, governor of Coele-Syria, Defeated by Jonathan


10:67 Then in the; hundred sixty fifth year Demetrius son of Demetrius came out of Crete to the land of his fathers:
10:68 Which when king Alexander heard tell, he was depressed, and returned to Antioch.
10:69 Then Demetrius made Apollonius the governor of Celosyria his general, who gathered together a great army, and camped in Jamnia, and sent to Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
the high priest, saying,
10:70 You alone lifted up yourself against us, and I am humiliated to scorn because of you, and criticized: and why do you boost of your power against us in the mountains?
10:71 Now for that reason, if you trust in your own strength, come down to us into the plain field, and there let us try the matter together: because
the strength of the cities is with me.
10:72 Ask and learn who I am, and the rest that take our side, and they will tell you that you can’t stand up to us.
10:73 For that reason now you won’t be able to tolerate the horsemen and so great a force in the plain, where there is neither stone or flint, or place to escape to.
10:74 So when Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
heard these words of Apollonius, he was stirred in his spirit, and choosing ten thousand men he went out of Jerusalem, where Simon his brother met him to support him.
10:75 And he pitched his tents next to Joppa: but; they of Joppa shut him out of the city, because Apollonius had a garrison there.
10:76 Then Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
laid siege on it: in which they of the city let him in for fear: and so Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
won Joppa.
10:77 Of which when Apollonius heard, he took three thousand horsemen, with a great army of footmen, and made his way to Azotus, and besides that drew him out into the plain. because he had a great number of horsemen, that he trusted.
10:78 Then Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
followed him to Azotus, where the armies joined battle.
10:79 Now Apollonius had left a thousand horsemen in ambush.
10:80 And Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
knew that there was an ambush coming from behind him; because they had surrounded in his army, and firing arrows at the people, from morning till evening.
10:81 But the people stood firm, as Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
had commanded them: and so the enemies’ horses were exhausted.
10:82 Then brought Simon out his army, and set them against the footmen, (for the horsemen were drained) who were hampered by him, and escaped.
10:83 The horsemen also, being scattered in the field, escaped to Azotus, and went to Bethdagon, their idol’s temple, for safety.
10:84 But Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
set fire to Azotus, and the cities around it, and took their spoils; and the temple of Dagonדָּגוֹן
Dāgōn) was a god worshiped in ancient Syria across the middle of the Euphrates where it was the god of prosperity and Syrian father of gods, represented as a fish-tailed man.
, he burned with fire along with those that had escaped to it.
10:85 So there were
nearly eight thousand men that were burned and killed with the sword.
10:86 And from there Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
left his army, and camped outside Ascalon, where the men of the city came out, and met him with great fanfare.
10:87 After this returned Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
with his army to Jerusalem, having loads of plunder.
10: Now when king Alexander heard about it, he honored Jonathanיוֹנָתָן‎ אַפְּפוּס
Jonathan Apphus Yōnāṯān ʾApfūs; Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς, Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was one of the sons of Mattathias and the leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. For more info click here
even more.
10:89 And sent him a badge of gold, as the use is to be given to those that are of the king’s blood:
also he gave him Accaron along with the borders of it to control.

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